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Transport is the process of moving goods or people from one place to another.

Importance of transport to Business.

  • Linking consumers to produce.
  • Employment creation.
  • promotes specialization.
  • Making goods and services more useful.
  • Improving peoples standards of living
  • Availing a wide market for products.
  • Increased production.
  • Avoiding wastage.
  • Promote development of industries.

Essenstial elements of transport.

These are basic elements which must be there for transport system to function efficiently. These are:

  • Units of carriage.
  • ways.
  • Method of propulsion.
  • Terminals,

Modes of Transport

These refers to the manners in which transport is carried out. These are three modes of transport.

  • Land
  • water
  • Air

Lands Transport.

This made of transport involves movement of goods and people using units of carriage that move on dry land. The various means under this include: Human portage, carts, vehicles, matatus, trains and pipeline transport.

Water transport.

Is a mode of transport where the units of carriage transport goods and people on water water transport can be highlighted by

  • Inland water ways.

This is transport carried out on lakes, rivers and inland canals. The lake Victoria facilitates transport among the free east African countries i.e Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. Ferries also connect the mainland to island. Water hyacinth has however been a threat to transport on the lake.

Reasons why most rivers in Kenya are non navigable.

  • Presence of rapids and waterfalls.
  • Most are seasonal.
  • Too shallow
  • Has high gradient too small.

Sea transport.

This is where goods and people are transported in seas and oceans. Sea transport is important as it connects continent of the world thereby facilitating international trade.

Types of water vessels.

  • Ships
  • Liners.
  • Tramps.
  • Boats and ferries.

Advantages of water transport.

  • Sea transport is economical to the owner as the number or employees to carriage volume ratio is less compared to road transport.
  • Suited for transporting heavy and bulky goods.
  • It is cheap as the way is natural and free.
  • Connects countries or the world which border the sea.
  • special types or ships are available for transport.
  • Large volume an be carried thereby reducing cost per unit.

Disadvantages of water transport.

  • Sea – sickness, sea pirates , storms may occur.
  • Sea transport may not be accessible in landlocked countries.
  • It is expensive to construct and maintain artificial habors.
  • Not suitable for transporting perishable and urgently required goods.
  • Unfavorable weather conditions may after water transport.
  • Lack of loading and off loading facilities may lead to delay.
  • Cost of acquiring and maintaining ships is high.

Air transport.

This is a mode of transport which aeroplane are used Aircrafts are the means of transport. It is the fastest means of transport. Airports and airstrips are their terminuses.

Advantages of air transport.

  • There is less handling or goods on the way since aeroplanes may move direct to the final destinations.
  • The way does not require construction or maintenance as it is natural and free.
  • Planes can move through places where other means cannot, such as over the earth poles and across high mountains.
  • have efficient interconnections between airlines all over the world which makes it convenient.
  • suitable for long distance travelers especially from one continent to another.
  • suitable for transporting perishable and urgently required goods.
  • They are more secure.

Disadvantages of air transport.

  • Causes noise pollution.
  • Require highly trained manpower.
  • Air fields are not available in all places.
  • Expensive to acquire and maintain aircraft
  • It is an expensive means of transport in terms of freight charges.
  • Incase of accidents results are catastrophic.
  • Unfavorable weather conditions may cause delay.


containerisation is a recent development in transport. It involves transporting goods packed in standard box like which are made either wood or metal. Which an be hired or bought.

Advantages of containerisation.

  • Minimizes the risks or loss or damage of goods as containers are sealed at source.
  • Containers are fitted with devices which make movement and handling easy.
  • saves time and labor in leading and off-loading due to use of machines.
  • special containers are available for goods requiring special attention.
  • Insurance costs are relatively low as risks are less.

Disadvantages of containerisation.

  • Containers are expensive and this increases the cost of transporting goods.
  • Contribute to unemployment sine it is capital intensive
  • Not suitable for transporting small quantities.
  • Requires special handling equipment which maybe expensive.
  • May not be suitable for good with irregular shapes.

Factors that influence choice a appropriate means in transport.

  • cost
  • Nature of goods.
  • Reliability
  • Urgency
  • Security
  • Distance.
  • Availability of means.
  • flexibility
  • terminals

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